Archive for October, 2008
RETINA FOR SALE, First, an apology:
One reason why I've taken to blogging so sporadically, and why Realistic Dove has experienced a rapidly diminishing number of page views, is that I am tired of arguing. I am tired of trying to prove that anyone is wrong or anyone is right. The premise of this blog is that there is a grey area where the truth lives, and reasonable people want to dwell there, not in the black- and white- terrain of fixed ideas about the Arab-Israeli conflict that is found on much of the Web. It is exhausting to insist upon locating the grey area, which perhaps explains why so few people care to look.
In a 2003 lecture at the YIVO Institute on digital anti-Semitism, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, the amazing Simon Schama summed up my problem. This is a historian who speaks in strings of lengthy and interesting sentences, which are not ideal for the constricting format of blogs, RETINA FOR SALE. The sentence structures are -in and of themselves-- a kind of rebuke to the simplistic, reductive argumentation he criticizes:
The triumph of the Web represents the overthrow, for good or for ill, not just of linear narrative but of the entire system of Baconian inductive reasoning, with its explicit commitment to hierarchies of knowledge, RETINA coupon, tests of proof and so on…
...Nor could anything possibly be further away from the epistemological conventions according to which arguments are tested against critical challenges than the Net's characteristic form of chat, which overwhelmingly takes the form of call and response, to which there is never any resolution or conclusion, merely a string of unadjudicated utterances and ejaculations. Digital allegiances can be formed there not through any sort of sifting of truth and falsehood but in response to and in defense of a kind of cognitive battering.
Still, exhaustion from repeated cognitive battering is no excuse for silence.
To compensate for my prolonged absence, RETINA cost, below is a (very) lengthy excerpt from a fascinating piece by an Australian scholar, Philip Mendes, that is posted on the Meretz USA Weblog. It concerns some of the most important yet least discussed questions of mid-20th century history:
o--What, precisely, prompted the rush of Jews from Arab lands in the late 1940s and early 1950s. RETINA FOR SALE, Was it an explosion of vengeful anti-Jewish policies and practices by Arab governments and societies (the standard Zionist explanation). Or was it a massive Zionist plot, RETINA long term, with false flag operations and skilful fear-mongering that deliberately exaggerated the threats to Sephardic Jews, in order to persuade them to seek refuge in Israel (the longstanding explanation offered by Arab opinion leaders and their fellow travelers in the anti-Israel left). Mendes shows that both views are simplistic.
o--Should the Palestinian exodus and the flight of Jews from Arab lands be considered a "population exchange," comparable to what happened in India-Pakistan and other regions. That argument is sometimes used to justify or explain away the Palestinian exile. Mendes says, "no, not really."
Most commentators who sound off on these topics have little detailed knowledge of the tangled history of Jews in Arab countries, RETINA FOR SALE. That is why the Mendes article, which mostly focuses on Iraq, where to buy RETINA, is valuable. If you don't have the patience to read his sometimes dry, historical reportage, here is the concluding quote, which suggests the relevance of his research to current controversies over refugees and compensation.
On the one hand, RETINA from mexico, Arab denial of the contribution made by anti-Jewish hostility to the Jewish exodus from Iraq and elsewhere is insensitive and ahistorical. Jewish refugees from Arab lands should be entitled to some form of compensation for abandoned lands and property. RETINA FOR SALE, There is no reason why organisations such as the World Organisation of Jews from Arab Countries (WOJAC) should not be formally represented in negotiations between Israel and the Arab states.
On the other hand, it is equally insensitive for Israel to use the experience of the Jewish refugees as a justification for its treatment of the Palestinian refugees. The latter group also have a justifiable claim for financial compensation.
This is a logic that passionate moderates should embrace.
In what follows, I have deleted all of the parenthetical references to other sources as well as a few sentences here and there. Go back to the Meretz site if you want to find them, kjøpe RETINA på nett, köpa RETINA online. Otherwise, I've left it alone, and present it without further commentary, RETINA FOR SALE.
THE FORGOTTEN REFUGEES: the causes of the post-1948 Jewish Exodus from Arab Countries by Philip Mendes, published in the Australian Journal of Jewish Studies, Volume 16, 2002, pp.120-134.
This paper explores the question of the other Middle Eastern refugees - the Jews who fled or were expelled from Arab countries between 1948 and the mid 1950s. RETINA australia, uk, us, usa, Specific attention is drawn to the experience of Iraq.
Using relevant literature, the author analyses the two principal and polarised versions of the exodus: the Zionist position which attributes the Jewish exodus almost solely to Arab violence or threats of violence; and the Arab or anti-Zionist position which assigns responsibility to a malicious Zionist conspiracy. RETINA FOR SALE, This paper suggests a middle-ground or less polarised version which acknowledges the role of both anti-Jewish hostility, and the attraction of Zionism and the newly-created State of Israel.
The Case of Iraq
The Jewish departure from Iraq arguably provides the best case example of the Jewish exodus from the Arab world.
The Jews of Iraq constituted one of the oldest communities of the Jewish Diaspora, dating back over 2500 years to the time of the Babylonian exile. They were well integrated into Iraqi society, and generally prosperous, RETINA online cod. Yet during 1950 and 1951, more than 120,000 Jews (95% of the Jewish population) left Iraq for Israel via the airlift known as Operation Ezra and Nehemiah. How and why did this mass evacuation occur, RETINA FOR SALE.
The traditional Zionist view views the exodus as a response to a long history of Arab persecution. This history of persecution culminated in an official policy of oppression and discrimination following the creation of the State of Israel. According to this perspective, Order RETINA from mexican pharmacy, the Iraqi Jews were also specifically attracted to Israel by the emotional power of the Zionist idea.
The alternative anti-Zionist view highlights the positives of Arab-Jewish history. RETINA FOR SALE, The Jews of Iraq are depicted as an overwhelmingly prosperous and integrated community. Their exodus is attributed not to anti-Semitism, but rather to a malicious Zionist conspiracy including instances of bomb-throwing aimed at achieving mass Jewish emigration to Israel.
Both these perspectives are overly simplistic, and arguably intended to bolster contemporary political claims and agendas. Following the general argument of the Israeli historian Moshe Gat, I will contend that the Jewish exodus from Iraq can be attributed to both push and pull factors, RETINA alternatives. While some of these factors were paralleled in other Arab countries, others were arguably unique to Iraq such as the prominent and popular identification of Jews with Communism.
Iraqi Jews in the pre-1948 period
Most of the literature agrees that Iraqi Jewry in the first half of the twentieth century was a relatively prosperous and well-integrated community, RETINA FOR SALE.
Jews were particularly prominent in trade utilising both their knowledge of European languages, and contacts with expatriate Iraqi Jews in the countries with which they traded. They also dominated the professions of banking and money-lending known locally as the sairafah business. For example, RETINA photos, a large proportion of members of the Baghdad Chamber of Commerce were Jewish. On the other hand, the majority of Jews were poor, and some were destitute. RETINA FOR SALE, Following the establishment of the modern Iraqi state in 1920, Jews contributed prominently to local arts and literature. They were represented in the Iraqi parliament, and many Jews held significant positions in the bureaucracy, Overall, Jews viewed themselves as Arabs of the Jewish faith, RETINA for sale, rather than as a separate race or nationality. Only a minority of Jews were sympathetic to Zionism...
...Nevertheless, during the 1930s, there was increasing evidence of a decline in Iraqi tolerance for minority groups. The massacre of Christian Assyrians seeking autonomy in August 1933 was widely viewed as an ominous signal. In addition, European anti-Jewish propaganda began to impact on Iraq, RETINA FOR SALE. Herbal RETINA, Numerous Palestinian exiles headed by the Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, spent time in Iraq. The German Ambassador to Iraq, Dr Fritz Grobba, was also a malevolent influence.
Anti-Jewish feeling was soon reflected in both official and popular actions. For example, RETINA forum, large numbers of Jewish clerks were dismissed from government positions, and restrictive quotas were placed on Jewish access to higher education. RETINA FOR SALE, In addition, following the outbreak of the Arab revolt in Palestine, public attacks including bombings took place against Jews and Jewish institutions. Considerable pressure was also placed on Jews to publicly dissociate themselves from Zionist activities. However, there was no official government policy of discrimination, and the authorities took action to protect Jews from extremist attacks. Purchase RETINA for sale, The security and confidence of Iraqi Jews was shattered by the pro-German military coup of April 1941. The coup leaders were quickly defeated and exiled by a British army occupation, but their departure was followed by a large-scale farhud or pogrom against the Jews of Baghdad. The farhud was perpetrated by Iraqi officers, police, and gangs of young people influenced by Nazi ideology, and the popular perception of a Jewish alignment with Britain, RETINA FOR SALE. Over 180 Jews were murdered, several hundred injured, and numerous Jewish properties and religious institutions damaged and looted.
However, the new Iraqi Government soon took steps to restore law and order, purchase RETINA online. The leaders of the farhud were jailed or exiled, and some were even executed. An offical committee of enquiry attributed the farhud to a number of factors including German propaganda, and the influence of Palestinian and Syrian exiles led by the Mufti of Jerusalem. RETINA FOR SALE, The Jewish community was also awarded financial compensation.
Consequently, the traditional leadership of the community was able to retain its commitment to Jewish integration into Iraqi society. RETINA dose, However, an increasing number of younger Jews began to turn to either Communist or Zionist solutions. Younger Jews established a Zionist underground movement dedicated to Zionist education, the defence of Jews from further violence, and the organisation of emigration to Palestine.
The outbreak of the 1948 Israeli-Arab War crystallised the "precarious" position of Iraqi Jewry. The war coincided with considerable political agitation around the signing of the British-Iraqi Portsmouth Treaty, RETINA FOR SALE. Both extreme right nationalists and communists campaigned against the continuation of the British presence. The Communist Party had a significant Jewish membership particularly in Baghdad including two key leaders, buy RETINA without prescription, Yehudah Abraham Zaddiq and Sason Shlomo Dallal. Both would later be hanged by the authorities.
The government took two principal measures to restore political calm. RETINA FOR SALE, On the one hand, martial law was imposed in order to maintain internal stability including the protection of Jewish life and property from extremists. On the other hand, the government implemented an official anti-Jewish policy of controlled oppression and discrimination.
Jewish freedom of movement was limited, Rx free RETINA, and Jews were forbidden to leave the country. Jews were forced to donate money to assist the Iraqi forces serving in Palestine. Import licences were restricted, Jewish doctors were refused registration, and Jewish banks were forbidden to engage in currency transfers. Wealthy Jews were detained and fined, RETINA FOR SALE. A law was passed defining Zionism as a criminal offence attracting severe penalties, and all Jews who had departed for Palestine in the last 10 years were declared to be criminals. In addition, RETINA dangers, government bodies were ordered to dismiss all Jewish employees consisting of approximately 1500 people.
The anti-Jewish policy came to a head in August 1948 with the arrest and execution of the millionaire businessman, Shafiq Ades, chief agent of the Ford company in Iraq. Ades was charged with purchasing surplus military equipment, and allegedly supplying them to Israel. RETINA FOR SALE, Many Moslem businessmen including Ades's business partners were involved in similar activities, but none of them were charged...The public hanging of Ades shocked the Jewish community. Buy cheap RETINA no rx, Ades was an assimilated Jew unsympathetic to Zionism who had been on close terms with leading government officials. His fate appeared to indicate the end of hopes for Jewish integration into Iraqi society.
Following the Middle East armistice in January 1949...,the government succeeded in locating the key leaders of the Zionist underground movement. Brutal measures including widespread arrests and torture were used to suppress the movement. However, these actions created an internal crisis in the Jewish community which led to the downfall of the traditional leadership, and its replacement by leaders sympathetic to the Zionist agenda, RETINA FOR SALE. Increasingly, Iraqi Jews considered immigration, rather than integration, online RETINA without a prescription, as the solution to their problems.
In March 1950, the Iraqis passed a Denaturalization Bill which gave Jews the legal right to immigrate. The Bill recognized an existing reality whereby approximately one thousand Jews were illegally departing each month via the Iranian border. The Bill also reflected a desire to be rid of disloyal elements - whether Zionist or Communist. RETINA FOR SALE, The authorities ironically saw the two groups as closely connected despite their inherent political enmity. This seemingly illogical view reflected two factors: the significant number of Jews in the Communist Party, RETINA street price, and the Party's support. The authorities also believed that the departure of Zionist elements would marginalise anti-Jewish extremists. They anticipated that only about 10,000 mainly poorer Jews would elect to depart, and that most Jews (particularly those involved in commerce and finance) would remain.
Contrary to claims of a Zionist conspiracy to evacuate Arab Jewish communities, the Israeli Government was initially highly reluctant to absorb a large number of Iraqi Jews.
This perspective partly reflected economic and budgetary realities, RETINA FOR SALE. For example, australia, uk, us, usa, Israel was already experiencing severe housing and employment problems in meeting the needs of existing immigrants from post-Holocaust Europe...
...However, pressure was placed on the Israelis by a number of sources. In particular, the passage of the Property Freezing Law in March 1951 rendered the denaturalized Jews not only stateless, but also penniless. RETINA recreational, There was also evidence of increasing threats to the safety and lives of remaining Jews. RETINA FOR SALE, Eventually after a number of months of hesitation, the Israeli Government agreed to accelerate the pace of immigration, and transport the entire Jewish community out of Iraq to Israel.
The Bombings and the Jewish Exodus
The Jewish exodus from Iraq was influenced by, and coincided with, a wave of bombings which took place between April 1950 and June 1951. These bombings damaged both Jewish and American targets, produced a number of serious injuries, and caused the deaths of six Iraqi Jews.
The motivation behind and responsibility for these bombings remains a contentious issue, RETINA price, coupon. According to a number of anti-Zionist authors, the bombings were perpetrated by Zionist agents in order to cause fear amongst the Jews, and so promote their exodus to Israel.
Some evidence for this argument is provided by the fact that the Iraqi authorities charged three members of the Zionist underground with perpetrating the explosions, RETINA FOR SALE. Two Jews were subsequently found guilty and executed, whilst a third was sentenced to a lengthy jail term.
In addition, My RETINA experience, many of the Iraqi Jewish immigrants shared the belief that the bombs had been thrown by the Zionist underground to persuade them to move to Israel. Many years later, Uri Avnery's muckraking newspaper, Haolam Hazeh, would popularise this claim. Avnery's argument was then repeated by numerous anti-Zionist commentators. RETINA FOR SALE, Attention has also been drawn to the similarity between this incident, and the 1954 bomb attacks by Zionist agents on American institutions in Egypt...However, the later attacks were arguably different in content and motivation in that they did not target or injure Jews, but rather damaged British and American institutions in an attempt to tarnish Egypt's reputation in the West.
In contrast, the historian Moshe Gat argues convincingly (in my opinion) that there was little direct connection between the bombings and [Iraqi Jewish] exodus, RETINA mg. He demonstrates that the frantic and massive Jewish registration for denaturalisation and departure was driven by knowledge that the denaturalisation law was due to expire in March 1951.
He also notes the influence of further pressures including the property-freezing law, and continued anti-Jewish disturbances which raised the fear of large-scale pogroms. In addition, it is highly unlikely the Israelis would have taken such measures to accelerate the Jewish evacuation, given that they were already struggling to cope with the existing level of Jewish immigration.
Gat also raises serious doubts about the guilt of the alleged Jewish bombthrowers, RETINA FOR SALE. RETINA results, Firstly, a Christian officer in the Iraqi army known for his anti-Jewish views, was arrested, but apparently not charged, with the offences. A number of explosive devices similar to those used in the attack on the Jewish synagogue were found in his home. In addition, there was a long history of anti-Jewish bomb-throwing incidents in Iraq, RETINA images.
Secondly, the prosecution was not able to produce even one eyewitness who had seen the bombs thrown. RETINA FOR SALE, Thirdly, the Jewish defendant Shalom Salah indicated in court that he had been severely tortured in order to procure a confession.
It therefore remains an open question as to who was responsible for the bombings, although Gat suggests that the most likely perpetrators were members of the anti-Jewish Istiqlal Party, Certainly memories and intepretations of the events have further been influenced and distorted by the unfortunate discrimination which many Iraqi Jews experienced on their arrival in Israel.
Why did the Jews Leave. RETINA pharmacy, To summarize, the massive and rapid Jewish exodus from Iraq arguably reflected a combination of push and pull factors. The key push factor was the strength of popular anti-Jewish feeling which was heightened by the 1948 Israeli-Arab war. Increasingly, Jews were viewed as a potential fifth column whose real sympathies lay with the enemies of Iraq, RETINA FOR SALE.
These feelings were intentionally exploited and strengthened by deliberate government policies which deprived Jews of their civil and economic rights....
Comparing the Jewish Exodus and the Palestinian Exodus
...The Israelis and their supporters have often argued that the experience of the Jewish refugees can be equated with that of the Palestinian refugees. Both left their countries due to violence or threats of violence. Unlike the Palestinians, however, RETINA reviews, who remained in refugee camps rather than being offered homes elsewhere, the Jewish refugees were welcomed and resettled in the Jewish State of Israel. RETINA FOR SALE, Their settlement inside Israel constitutes (so the argument goes) a direct and legitimate exchange of populations.
The Arab view is almost dichotomous. The Jewish refugees were respected and equal citizens of Arab countries, but were persuaded to leave by malicious Zionist propaganda. Unlike the Palestinian refugees, Order RETINA no prescription, they left voluntarily and are welcome to return at any time.
As the above discussion has demonstrated, neither of these perspectives reflects the complexity of the Jewish exodus. To be sure, there are some superficial similarities between the two exoduses, RETINA FOR SALE. However, the differences between the two exoduses are arguably far more significant.
Firstly, the Palestinian expulsion occurred under conditions of external war and conflict, whereas the Jewish departure from Iraq primarily reflected internal political developments, doses RETINA work. In addition, the Jewish departure reflected far more diverse factors. As already noted, many Jews were strongly motivated by Zionist beliefs, and voluntarily left Iraq for Israel. RETINA FOR SALE, Secondly, the two exoduses did not concur chronologically. The Jewish exodus from Iraq and other Arab countries took place a number of years after the Palestinian exodus. There is no evidence that the Israeli leadership anticipated a so-called population exchange when they made their arguably harsh decision to prevent the return of Palestinian refugees.
Thirdly, it is important to remember that the Arab States, not the Palestinians, were responsible for the Jewish exodus.
Finally, Israel agreed to accept the Jewish refugees who subsequently integrated with varying degrees of success into Israeli society, and looked towards the future. Unlike the Palestinians, most of the Jewish refugees had little or no desire to return to their former homes in Baghdad or elsewhere, RETINA FOR SALE. In contrast, the Arab states refused to facilitate an organized resettlement of Palestinian refugees. Consequently, most looked backwards, and held onto hopes of a return to Palestine. This analysis demonstrates that the two exoduses are not identical in motivation and cause, and should be considered separately.
On the one hand, Arab denial of the contribution made by anti-Jewish hostility to the Jewish exodus from Iraq and elsewhere is insensitive and ahistorical. RETINA FOR SALE, Jewish refugees from Arab lands should be entitled to some form of compensation for abandoned lands and property. There is no reason why organisations such as the World Organisation of Jews from Arab Countries (WOJAC) should not be formally represented in negotiations between Israel and the Arab states.
On the other hand, it is equally insensitive for Israel to use the experience of the Jewish refugees as a justification for its treatment of the Palestinian refugees. The latter group also have a justifiable claim for financial compensation.
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MEDROL OVER THE COUNTER, When discussing Israel, one of the most difficult challenges that confronts passionate moderates like me is criticism that holds the Jewish state to a different moral standard than the one that is used to judge other nation states. By and large, I am suspicious of people who are obsessed with singling out Israel and the Israelis for supposedly immoral behavior, is MEDROL safe, who spend their spare time combing the Internet ONLY for stories of injustice perpetrated by Zionists and then spreading the word about them. Cheap MEDROL no rx, One common response of Israel's defenders is to ask these people why they aren't spending just as much energy denouncing the Sudanese government for Darfur, or Somalian war lords, or the Lebanese who bombed a Palestinian refugee camp and killed innocent civilians in order to root out Islamic radicals, MEDROL used for. Horrific things happen in war, Buy MEDROL from mexico, according to this argument. The Americans firebombed Dresden and Toyko, look what the Russians did in Chechnya...Why single out Israel, where can i cheapest MEDROL online.
In general, that argument is appropriate when Israel's attackers are Westerners who have little personal connection to the conflict, and whose arguments are so vituperative that their motives deserve to be questioned, MEDROL OVER THE COUNTER. It is not hard to detect those who lack all sense of proportion, Fast shipping MEDROL, who have decided that there is something singularly evil about Israel or Jewish self-determination, and who cannot fathom that there are two sides to most of the stories they choose to tell. One wonders where all their rage is coming from, MEDROL overnight. Perhaps it is derived from that portion of the collective unconscious that always blames the JEWS. Buy generic MEDROL, Perhaps it comes from a simple need to hate something or someone, to transfer all wrongs into one, totemic hate object and focus on it to the exclusion of everything else, real brand MEDROL online. MEDROL OVER THE COUNTER, On the other hand, the argument that "other people do bad things" is not a defense when Israel does them. It makes sense when it is used to call the motivations of reflexively belligerent Israel-bashers into question. MEDROL price, It falls apart when it is used to justify Israeli behavior that is simply WRONG.
Last month, on the Americans for Peace Now web site, MEDROL gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, Leonard Fein had a great post on the cluster bombs that Israel scattered throughout southern Lebanon in the last 72 hours of the war two years ago. Online buying MEDROL hcl, (See "A Modest Proposal: Pay the Bill to Clear Cluster Bombs," Sept. 8), MEDROL OVER THE COUNTER. All of the complex, canada, mexico, india, nuanced arguments in the world can't obscure the fact that Israeli military officials took actions that they knew would jeopardize the lives of civilians AFTER the end of an armed conflict, Get MEDROL, in order to stop Hezbollah from becoming entrenched once again. The end was understandable; it did not justify the means.
Fein proposes that Israel pay for the cost of removing the "bomblets" because the UN can't afford it, MEDROL from canada. I won't repeat his arguments. MEDROL OVER THE COUNTER, Check them out yourself. Purchase MEDROL, For a contrary view, what follows is an essay that Tom Mitchell sent to me. I think he is wrong, buy MEDROL from canada.
Among other points, MEDROL treatment, Tom writes: "While..[cluster bombs] may be against international agreements—I’m not an international lawyer—it is a fairly common military strategy used by the U.S. in the Vietnam War and France in Vietnam and Algeria. I contend that Israel should be held to the same standard of conduct as Western democracies in similar situations, and not to the standard of blind compliance with paper agreements that many of the signers had no intention of complying with."
I think his casual dismissal of international law in this case implies that Israel should never be bound by international law, MEDROL OVER THE COUNTER. His casual acceptance of killing civilians in order to stop the movement of enemy troops when no war is being waged implies that Israel can and should ignore basic standards of human decency, buying MEDROL online over the counter. I disagree, Online buy MEDROL without a prescription, passionately. Here is his essay:
CLUSTER BOMBS AND MORALITY IN WARFARE
by Thomas Mitchell
Leonard Fein has a rather interesting piece on Israeli use of cluster bombs during the Second Lebanon War and who bears the responsibility for the cost of their cleanup on his “The Conversation” blog at the APN website (www.peacenow.org). Fein relates that Israel used cluster bombs extensively in Southern Lebanon during the last two days of the war when plans for a ceasefire were imminent, MEDROL natural. MEDROL OVER THE COUNTER, He also claims that the munitions used were older American-manufactured bombs with a much higher failure rate than those experienced with Israeli-manufactured cluster munitions. Fein suggests that this selection was due to cost consideration...I would suggest that price was probably not the main consideration involved, MEDROL pics, and that deterrence rather than revenge was the proper motive.
Neither Israel nor the United States signed the anti-land mine treaty of the 1990s, as both rely extensively on land mines for defensive purposes, MEDROL no prescription. The U.S. Where can i order MEDROL without prescription, Army uses them along the DMZ in Korea to defend against a North Korean invasion. Israel uses them on the Golan and in northern Israel to defend against both invasion and terrorist infiltration, MEDROL OVER THE COUNTER. From the time of the 1936-39 Arab Revolt, the Zionists/Israelis have used a strategy of reprisal raids against villages and countries hosting, MEDROL pictures, either voluntarily or involuntarily, No prescription MEDROL online, insurgents who have infiltrated into the yishuv/Israel. Israel practiced this on a small scale during the Arab Revolt against Arab villages and on a much wider scale from 1953-56 and in 1966-67 and in Lebanon since 1972. The idea is to signal to the Arab governments that there is a high price to pay for allowing terrorists to operate from their territory, ordering MEDROL online. This same strategy was copied by Rhodesia in 1979 against economic infrastructure targets in Mozambique and Zambia and by South Africa in the 1980s. MEDROL OVER THE COUNTER, I would argue that Israel probably deliberately used old cluster bombs as a sort of aerial mine dispersal system so as to deny economic use of swaths of Southern Lebanese territory. About MEDROL, Since 1969 Israel has faced a war of attrition from terrorists in Lebanon: first the Palestinians (Fatah, PFLP, etc.) and then from 1982-83 from Hezbollah, MEDROL wiki. Both sides in the conflict consider themselves to be fighting a prolonged war of survival. Fast shipping MEDROL, Fein argues that Israel or its supporters should pay the cost of cleaning up the mines. I argue that cleaning up the mines while the conflict continues is a waste of money as Israel is likely to remine the area as long as Hezbollah continues to act against Israel. One respondent argued that this creation of a cordon sanitaire was a war crime, MEDROL OVER THE COUNTER. While it may be against international agreements—I’m not an international lawyer—it is a fairly common military strategy used by the U.S, online buying MEDROL hcl. in the Vietnam War and France in Vietnam and Algeria. Purchase MEDROL online, I contend that Israel should be held to the same standard of conduct as Western democracies in similar situations ,and not to the standard of blind compliance with paper agreements that many of the signers had no intention of complying with.
In a recent three-part PBS program British historian Niall Ferguson, canada, mexico, india, who teaches at Harvard, MEDROL steet value, argued that the Allies won World War II by using the same basic tactics as the Axis powers. MEDROL OVER THE COUNTER, The Allied governments argued that the initial use of such prohibited practices as sinking of merchant vessels by submarines without prior warning or bombing of civilian targets by the Axis powers first allowed them to also violate the agreements in a similar fashion. The democracies did not shoot prisoners of war or run death camps (although the Soviets certainly did). But copying German submarine tactics allowed the U.S, MEDROL no prescription. Navy to win a guerre de corse against the Japanese Empire and the British RAF to mount a bombing campaign against German cities with its inaccurate bombsights.
In the Second World War both the British and Soviets felt that they were fighting for their survival (or the survival of their empires) and thus allowed themselves to take measures that they would not normally take. The United States was not even fighting a war of survival but merely a war to avenge Pearl Harbor in the Pacific, MEDROL OVER THE COUNTER. Similarly Israel feels that it is involved in a struggle for survival against terrorists who do not recognize its right to exist. Average Israelis feel that Arab terrorism allows Israel to use similar methods against those same terrorists and their host governments, even if Jerusalem does not make this same argument out loud. I argue that Israel should be held to the same standards of practice as France in Algeria, the British in Northern Ireland, and the British and Americans in Afghanistan and Iraq. President Bush claimed that the U.S. MEDROL OVER THE COUNTER, was involved in a global war on terror (GWOT); Northern Ireland is, and Algeria was, an integral part of a national homeland.
Leftists and pacifists may argue that either war should be outlawed or that multilateral agreements create a “customary law” prohibiting certain activities. I think that Israel should model its conduct after the actual conduct of the leading democracies. This may violate the Biblical principle of “or l'goyim” (a light onto the nations) but it is in line with the Zionist principle of creating an “am kakol ha’amim” i.e. a normal state. The trick is to define the standard of normality according to Western norms, rather than the norms of Israel’s neighbors and enemies. Although, as Niall Ferguson would argue, in a crisis the two meld seamlessly.
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